The reformers recognized that God reigned over the universe, but that we could distinguish how God reigned through his administrations of church and government.
We render to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s. Since grace does not destroy nature, we belong to heaven even while having obligations to administrations on earth. So we pay taxes to whom taxes are due (Rom 13:6). And we honour God with our conscience, worship, and so on.
This kind of thing represents what the reformers meant by two-kingdom theology. It was not two discrete kingdoms but two distinguishable administrations of God’s one reign. [Read more…] about Brief Thoughts on the Two-Kingdoms